Transform Your Practice By Using Guidelines Informed by Research, Staff and Justice-Involved Individuals

What are the costs of the practices?

In-Patient & Out-Patient Treatment

  • Due to the considerable costs of treatment, referrals to both in-patient and out-patient treatment are limited
  • Treatment services should only be offered to someone who has gone through a validated substance use evaluation and diagnosed with a substance use disorder
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Mental Health Screening and Evaluation

  • There are many validated mental health screening and evaluation tools available free online (see Appendix A1). In most cases, the cost is equal to the officer’s time taken to administer the tool.
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Substance Use Screening and Evaluation

  • There may be a cost of obtaining an evidence-based screener or evaluation and for training staff on the use of the tool.
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Alcohol and Drug Use Education

  • ADE is often included in in-patient and out-patient treatment; there are considerable costs tied to ADE.
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Cognitive Behavioral Techniques

  • Learning CB techniques and becoming competent will entail training costs.
  • Using CB techniques with clients can be integrated into routine activities with officers, lowering the cost required to use them.
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  • Incentives vary in cost.
    • Prize-based incentives are generally the most expensive.
    • Practical incentives vary in cost but are generally affordable when they come in the form of transportation vouchers and cell phone minutes.
    • Reduced-supervision incentives have no cost and may save the supervision department money by taking less officer time to meet with clients.
  • Some incentives (such as social incentives) do not have an associated cost.
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Prosocial Modeling

  • There are no financial costs of prosocial modeling.
  • The only potential cost of prosocial modeling for officers is their time. Prosocial modeling may cause contacts between client and officer to run longer than they would otherwise.
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  • POs may sometimes need to follow through with threats of sanctions in order to maintain the validity of the threat. In these cases, sanctions cost both the legal system (through costs associated with incarceration, electronic monitoring, etc.) and the client (through fines, time missed at work, etc.)
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Environmental Restructuring

  • Large-scale environmental restructuring (e.g., changing a housing complex so that it is safer) is very expensive and often beyond the abilities of probation officers.
  • Increasing a client’s awareness of the risks posed by their environment so that they are motivated to change it in realistic ways (i.e., no drastic changes; the client must be ready and able to make a change) is inexpensive as it can be done during regular office and field visits.
    • Threats of sanction cannot “convince” a person to change their environment.
    • Officers should work on persuasion approaches to help clients consider the value of changing contexts.
    • This can raise the costs of environmental restructuring if sanctions involve electronic monitoring, jail stays, etc.
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Transportation Resources

  • Transportation resources can be expensive depending on the price of transportation in the area and the frequency with which they are given to the client.
    • Resources for public transportation may be less expensive than those for private transportation.
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