Appropriateness Statement Package

Transform Your Practice By Using Guidelines Informed by Research, Staff and Justice-Involved Individuals

Community supervision agencies are responsible for managing diverse populations with a range of offending behaviors such as shoplifting, violence or intimate partner violence, drug use, or involvement with street gangs. Complicating the picture are characteristics of the clients themselves.

Click below to search guidelines on 20 common supervision practices.


Veronica Cunningham, Executive Director/CEO of American Probation and
Parole Association

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An introduction to and the purposes of the Statement Package.


This section covers a number of commonly used contact practices.

Compliance-Based Practices

This section covers a number of compliance-based  (monitoring and oversight) practices


This section covers a number of commonly used treatment and therapeutic practices

Motivation Techniques

This section covers a number of commonly used motivation technique practices. These include incentives, sanctions, and pro-social modeling.

Additional Components

This section covers some additional supervision components that do not fall into the previous themed categories.

Additional Resources

This section contains the citations and resources for each topic.


This section covers terminology used in the Statement Package.

or Browse by Curated Questions

Summary of the evidence

What are the practices? 

What are typical ways the practices are used?

How can you use the practices in different ways?

What are the costs of the practices?

Perspectives on the practices

Communication to strengthen the officer-client relationship

Special considerations for subpopulations

Learn How We Developed These guidelines

C.J. Appleton and Ben Mackey provide an overview of supervision guidelines.


Practice Guidelines for Special Populations

Video: JoAnn Lee and Olivia Stuart discuss best practices for young adults.

Video: Gary Cuddeback discusses best practices for individuals with mental illness.

Video: Scott Walters discusses best practices for individuals with Substance Use Disorder.

PDF: The issue of Federal Probation with a collection of articles on supervision special populations.


Faye S. Taxman, PhD
JoAnn S. Lee, PhD, MSW, MPA
CJ Appleton, MS
Benjamin J. Mackey, MA

Advisory Panel

Gary Cuddeback, PhD, MSW, MPH
Denise Hines, PhD
Raymond Chip Tafrate, PhD
Scott T. Walters, PhD


Created with funding from Arnold Ventures.

The authors would like to thank the probation staff and justice-involved individuals who gave critical insight to this project. We would also like to thank the advisory panel—Drs. Gary Cuddeback, Denise Hines, Raymond Chip Tafrate, and Scott Walters—for their time and dedication to the project. Finally, we thank Arnold Ventures for their support of the project.

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