- Description of how the practice can be used to check if the client is being compliant with supervision conditions, if at all.
- Description of how the practice can be used in the general supervision process.
- In-person/face-to-face contacts allow officers to determine if clients are complying with the conditions of their supervision (like obtaining employment or attending treatment).
- In-person/face-to-face contacts also help officers build rapport with clients through regular interaction.
- Telephone contacts allow officers to speak with their clients, but they do not provide the same opportunity for face-to-face interaction.
- Regular telephone contacts can help officers to establish rapport through repeated (sometimes unscheduled) check-ins.
- Telephone contacts can reinforce the officer-client relationship by showing that the officer is invested in the client’s wellbeing.
- Kiosk reporting helps officers monitor client compliance with supervision conditions, but it does not provide an opportunity for officers to build rapport with the client.
- Increasing the number of regularly scheduled contacts between officer and client increases the surveillance on that client and the demand on the client’s time, which can create conflicts with other obligations.
- Increasing the frequency of contacts also increases an officer’s ability to check for a client’s compliance with supervision conditions.
- Face-to-face contacts can be augmented by telephone contacts, Zoom calls, Facetime, etc.
- Evidence-based supervision calls for officers to use their regularly scheduled contact to build rapport and develop a strong working relationship with their clients.
- Officers use their contacts with clients to supervise their client through effective case management techniques.
- Increasing the frequency of contacts should not be done at the expense of the quality of those contacts. Contacts between officer and client should be marked by rapport-building techniques (i.e., respect, active listening, positive reinforcement).
- Increasing the frequency of contacts between officer and client can offer more ability for officers to be familiar with the client’s life and provide resources to assist the client.
- Increased number of contacts offers more ability for officers to detect troublesome behavior and intervene more quickly, potentially preventing criminal behavior or more serious supervision violations.
- Reducing the frequency of contact with clients can be used as an incentive for compliant behavior.
- Both collateral contacts and employer contacts can be used as a tool that adds a level of accountability for clients.
- The added level of accountability can serve as motivation for clients to remain compliant between office visits.
- Collateral and employer contacts can either reinforce an officer as a change agent or as an authoritative law enforcement agent depending on the officer’s approach when making the contact.
- Officers should use rapport-building techniques when conducting contacts.
- An officer being up-to-date and aware of the client’s progress in programming reinforces that they are invested in their client’s change.
- Coordinating with counselors/caseworkers can help the officer understand what areas a client might need additional support, so this can inform topics and skills to work on during office visits.
- Establishing open lines of communication with family and other social supports can serve to alert the officer when their client struggles with supervision.
- Drug testing can be used to determine if a client is using illicit substances (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, heroin, etc.).
- If technical violations are given after a positive test, increased drug testing can lead to increased technical violations.
- Drug testing can be used to determine whether a client is using narcotics.
- Drug testing with incentives for negative tests can help clients overcome substance-use issues by encouraging clients to attend treatment programming.
- This may help them achieve other supervision goals, like getting a job or forming positive relationships with others who do not use drugs.
- Incentives can be prizes (e.g., gift cards, electronics, etc.) or practical resources (e.g., bus passes, cell phone minutes, etc.).
- EM can track accountability and compliance.
- EM may be used as a graduated sanction.
- EM is most effective when used alongside evidence-based treatments.
- EM by itself is not a “treatment” that directly targets values, cognitions, or skills.
- EM is a control tool that can increase the level of surveillance and reduce the capacity and opportunity to commit crimes.
- EM is most effective for medium- to high-risk clients when combined with evidence-based programming (e.g., substance use treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy).
- There’s some evidence that EM can be used to offer information to clients in real time related to their whereabouts (e.g., location of nearby substance-use meetings).
- Paying court fines, fees, and restitution, as well as supervision fees are typically stipulated in the conditions of supervision.
- Supervision fees are standard practice for many supervision departments.
- There is no evidence that fines, fees, or restitution contribute to the rehabilitative purposes of supervision.
- Nonmonetary restitution allows the client to volunteer their time to tasks that improve their community. This may be a preferable option for the many clients with limited financial resources.
- House arrest may be used as an intermediate sanction.
- House arrest can be effective when combined with a curfew.
- House arrest increases surveillance on clients while allowing them to keep their job or stay in school.
- House arrest is not a therapeutic tool.
- House arrest is a control tool that increases the level of surveillance and reduces the capacity and opportunity to commit crimes.
- As an alternative to incarceration, house arrest can keep clients away from the negative effects of more restrictive sanctions and settings (e.g., work release, jail, prison).
- House arrest should be promoted as an opportunity for the individual to demonstrate they can comply with conditions.
- Completion of a house arrest sanction should be presented as a way for a client to regain the trust of their officer.
- Phone calls between office visits can be used to ensure a client is following through with tasks/goals established during visits.
- GPS tracking can monitor the geographic location of a client and alert the officer if the client leaves the prescribed area.
- GPS technology can track a client’s everyday activities and alert officers of aberrations (e.g., not going to work, staying at home multiple days in a row).
- Brief surveys embedded in text messages between face-to-face visits can alert the officer to concerning behavior and allow for early intervention.
- Text messaging can be positive reinforcement for achieving supervision milestones, promoting effective behavior change, and fostering a positive supervision climate.
- Text messaging can remind clients of their appointments and other supervision responsibilities, cutting down on technical violations for nonattendance.
- Information about job openings, programs that offer services, or self-improvement classes can be sent via phone.
- An officer who contacts clients between office visits via phone shows they care about the success of the client.
- Shifting a medium-risk client to low-risk by placing them on voice recognition telephone monitoring can be a reward for success on supervision.
- Restraining orders are surveillance tools by nature.
- Officers can use GPS technology (See electronic monitoring and phone-based monitoring statements) to ensure compliance with the conditions of the restraining order.
- If GPS technology is not used, the officer can use collateral contacts and relationships with the client to ensure compliance with the restraining order.
- Restraining orders are not treatment tools.
- The use of restraining orders does little to enhance the treatment goals of supervision.
- Restraining orders can limit contact with an unhealthy relationship, helping create an environment conducive to success.
- Anger management is designed to help clients manage their emotions and respond to difficult situations in positive, nonviolent ways. It is not intended to monitor compliance with supervision conditions.
- Anger management can help clients address problems in nonviolent ways.
- This can help clients comply with supervision conditions without becoming frustrated and acting out in violent ways.
Use the form below to contact the team behind the Appropriateness Statement Package.