Major Completed Projects

Motivational Assistance Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) - Completed

About two thirds of probationers are substance-involved, but less than half participate in treatment. MAPIT compared two potential ways of motivating probationers to initiate and engage in substance abuse treatmentโ€”in person motivational interviewing (MI) and a motivational computer program (MAPIT) โ€” to community supervision as usual (SAU). MAPIT used theory-based algorithms and a synthetic voice program to deliver custom reflections, feedback, and suggestions. MAPIT could also send emails or texts to remind probationers about their goals.

Key Staff:

  • Principal Investigators: Faye S. Taxman, Scott T. Walters (University of North Texas Health Science Center)
  • Project Managers: Mayra Rodriguez, Jennifer Lerch

Funding Source: National Institute of Drug Abuse (R01 DA029010)

Study Locations: Dallas, Texas and Baltimore, Maryland

Study Aims:

  • Translating effective interventions to address target substance abuse and/or HIV/AIDS testing behaviors, develop two intervention formats (social work delivered MI and computerized motivational interviewing format referred to as MAPIT) and the efficacy of the interventions to increase motivation to initiate treatment and engage in substance abuse treatment and/or HIV/AIDS testing and, if appropriate, HIV care;
  • Test the efficacy of MAPIT and Mi on treatment initiation and participation, substance abuse, HIV testing/care, and recidivism, as compared to SAU;
  • Evaluate offender characteristics (e.g., risk level, gender, ethnicity, motivation) as potential moderators of the intervention effect; and,
  • Assess the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of MI and MAPIT on substance abuse treatment and/or linkage to or participation in HIV/AIDS care, supervision outcomes, recidivism, and substance abuse.

Major Findings:

  • MAPIT participants had increased treatment initiation at the 2-month follow-up, as compared to SAU. This significance diminished by the 6-month follow-up.
  • Social Work delivered MI had no effect on treatment initiation as compared to SAU.
  • MAPIT was found to be potentially be a good value compared to MI (in-person); however these results are qualified by a dependence on how the outcome of treatment initiation is measured.
  • No effects were found on substance use behavior or recidivism outcomes.ย 


See MAPIT:


Publications:

Cowell, A.J., Zarkin, G.A., Wedehase, B.J., Lerch, J., Walters, S.T., & Taxman, F.S. (2018). Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Computerized vs. In-Person Motivational Interventions in the Criminal Justice System. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 87, 42-49.

Rossheim, M.E., Livingston, M.D., Lerch, J., Taxman, F.S., & Walters, S.T. (2018). Serious mental illness and negative substance use consequences among adults on probation. Health and Justice, 6(6), 1-9.

Spohr, S.A. (2017). Social Interactions among Probationers: Quality and Quantity of Social Influence on Substance Use and Treatment Attendance (Doctoral Dissertation). University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX.

Spohr, S. A., Taxman, F.S., & Walters, S. T. (2017). People's reasons for wanting to complete probation: Use and predictive validity in an e-health intervention. Evaluation and Program Planning, 61, 144-149.

Lerch, J., Walters, S.T., Tang, L., & Taxman, F.S. (2017). Effectiveness of a computerized motivational intervention on treatment initiation and substance use: Results from a randomized trial. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 80, 59-66.

Marshall, B., Spohr, S., A., Taxman, F. S., & Walters, S. T. (2017). The effect of childhood household dysfunction on future HIV risk among probationers. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 28(2), 754-769.

Spohr, S. A., Suzuki, S., Marshall, B., Taxman, F. S., & Walters, S. T. (2016). Social support quality and availability affects risk behaviors in offenders. Health & Justice, 4(2).

Taxman, F.S., Walters, S.T., Sloas, L.B., Lerch, J., & Rodriguez, M. (2015). Motivational tools to improve probationer treatment outcomes. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 43, 120-128.

Spohr, S. A., Taxman, F. S., Rodriguez, M., & Walters, S. T. (2016). Motivational interviewing fidelity in a criminal justice setting: Treatment initiation and subsequent drug use. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 65, 20-5.

Spohr, S. A., Walters, S. T., & Taxman, F. S. (2015). The relationship between electronic goal reminders and subsequent drug use and treatment initiation in a criminal justice setting. Addictive Behaviors, 51, 51-56.

Reingle, J.M., Walters, S.T., Lerch, J. & Taxman, F.S. (2015). The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 53, 33-38.

Walters, S. T., Ondersma, S. J., Ingersoll, K. S., Rodriguez, M., Lerch, J., Rossheim, M. E., & Taxman, F. S. (2014). MAPIT: Development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46, 60-65.

Walters, S. T., Ressler, E., Douglas, L., & Taxman, F. S. (2013, October). Motivational interviewing in criminal justice: A new approach to addressing treatment motivation and related behaviors. Counselor: The Magazine for Addictions Professionals, 2013(5), 48-53.

Key Presentations:

Thurman, T., Walters, S.T., & Taxman, F.S. (2016, November). Examining Trauma among Adults on Probation. Paper presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Rossheim, M.E., Livingston, M.D., Taxman, F.S., & Walters, S.T. (2016, November). Serious Mental Illness, Substance Use, and Related Problems among People on Probation. Paper presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Lerch, J., Walters, S.T., Taxman, F.S., & Tang, L. (2016, November). Effects of a computerized, motivational program for substance using probationers. Paper presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Cowell, A., Zarkin, G., Wedehase, B., Taxman, F.S., & Walters, S.T. (2016, November). Cost-effectiveness of in-person vs. computerized interventions among drug-involved probationers. Paper presented at American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA.

Walters, S.T., Taxman, F.S., Lerch, J., Thurman, T., & Spohr, S.A. (2016, March). Examining Social Determinants of Health and Mechanisms of Change Among the Criminal Justice Involved. Paper presented at Academic Consortium on Criminal Justice Health Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD.

Spohr, S., Taxman, F.S., Walters, S.T. (2015, October). Being Successful on Probation: Reasons that Motivate Offenders to Change. Paper presented at Addiction of Health Services Research conference, Marina del Ray, CA.

Spohr, S., Suzuki, S., Marshall, B., Taxman, F.S., & Walters, S.T. (2015, October). The Role of Social Support on Risky Behaviors: Quality versus Quantity. Paper presented at Addiction of Health Services Research conference, Marina del Ray, CA.

Spohr, S., Taxman, F.S., Walters, S.T. (2015, April). Electronic Goal Reminders and Subsequent Substance Use and Treatment Initiation in Probationers. Poster presented at the Research Appreciation Day, Fort Worth, TX.

Rodriguez, M., Spohr, S., Walters, S.T., & Taxman, F.S. (2015, March). Examining language as a mechanism of behavior change among criminal justice offenders. Poster at American Academy of Health Behavior Annual conference, San Antonio, TX.

Reingle Gonzalez, J., Taxman, F.S., & Walters, S.T. (2015, March). On the relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation. Oral presentation at the Academic & Health Policy Conference on Correctional Health, Boston, MA.

Sloas, L.B. & Taxman, F.S. (2014, November). Working Together? An examination of the working relationship between probation officers and probationers. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Francisco, CA.

Rossheim, M. E., Rodriguez, M., Walters, S. T., Lerch, J., & Taxman, F. S. (2014, October). Multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drink in a can (MFAC) use and urban street life. Poster presented at American Public Health Association, New Orleans, LA.

Walters, S.T., Rodriguez, M., Lerch, J., & Taxman, F.S., (2013, June). MAPIT: Development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system. Poster presented at College of Problems on Drug Dependence conference, San Diego, CA.

Taxman, F.S., Walters, S.T., Rodriguez, M., & Lerch, J. (2013, May). HIV perceptions, HIV testing intentions and commitment for substance abuse treatment among probationers. Poster presented at Texas Conference on Health Disparities, Fort Worth, TX.

Rossheim, M.E., Patil, P.G., Rodriguez, M., & Walters, S.T. (2013, April). Synthetic vs human narration in a health behavior intervention: Formative research to guide the selection of a narrator voice. Poster presentation at American Academy of Health Behavior, Santa Fe, NM.

Walters, S.T., Rodriguez, M., Lerch, J., & Taxman, F.S. (2012, June). Development of a motivational interviewing based e-intervention targeting probation compliance. Oral presentation at International Conference on Motivational Interviewing, Venice, Italy.